一边是海工船的产能过剩,一边是国家对科考船的大量需求,如何能将两个市场融合已达到双赢?海工支援船(OSV)构造和技术性能方面非常符合科考船基本需求,将其改造成科考船能节省成本及建造时间。本文从技术和需求为切入点,希望能为海工船东和船厂在海工市场低迷的背景下提供一些思路。 引言 全球海工支援船(OSV)市场依然面临严重的供给过剩问题。随着市场需求持续低迷,长期闲置的OSV数量创下新高。随着油价下跌、海上研究项目需求下滑,海工行业资产价格已经降到史上最低,全球各地的许多船东相继破产,大量海工船舶被撤单或延迟交付,滞留在船厂。与此同时,最新消息称,目前美国有250多艘各种用途的海洋科考船,但中国目前只有40多艘,未来中国对海洋科考船的需求将非常大。 近年来,我国一直积极推进海洋科考装备建设, 中国海洋大学副校长吴立新教授在2016年海洋科考船和热门船项目机会研讨会上证实中国将很快下单建造成本达50亿人民币的科考船。702所顾问、原708所向阳红科考船总设计师葛兴国在研讨会上演讲说,不但国家海洋系统的研究所和机构将下单建造多艘科考船,许多大学,包括西北地区的大学都在准备建造科考船。最近几年新建科考船包括向阳红03号、嘉庚号的布局及技术性能与海工支援船(OSV)非常接近,在海工市场低谷时期收部分未交付的新建海工支持船并改造成科考船不但能够节省经费,还能将海工船舶资源重整,减少资源浪费。 一、科考船技术要求 海洋科学考察船一般具有各种科学调查能力.每一种能力都对应着各自独特的调查手段,这就要求船舶这一平台具备适应各种调查能力的航行状态。科学考察船根据其调查能力定位的需求对船舶通常有如下几方面的特定技术要求: 1、动力定位能力: 海洋科学考察船通常具有海洋生物、海洋地质等调查作业能力,需要释放水下机器人,或者释放海底取样装置如柱状取样器、箱形采泥器等,这些作业对船舶的定位能力和定位精度有一定的要求,也就是DP功能,根据不同的作业能力要求船舶能够保持一定的位置或一定的航向,在作业状态下不可偏离水下仪器释放位置太远,否则容易造成调查作业设备丢失等情况发生,因此通常海洋科学考察船会要求具备动力定位能力。 2、灵活的操作性能 科学考察船通常携带多种需要释放海上的科考仪器及设备,需要操纵船舶在调查取样结束后需要顺利回收,因此要求船舶应当具有灵活的操纵性能。 3、航速航行性能: 具有海洋地球物理调查系统、深海环境探测系统等调查能力的科考船要求具有较好的低速航行性能。比如在约5节航速下进行地震勘测气爆测量、深海拖曳操作等。 4、电站的冗余度: 科学考察船上配置有几大系统的科考设备。各种科考设备要正常工作需要船上提供足够的满足要求的充足电能,因此,科学考察船需要电站有一定的冗余度。 5、低噪声、低振动性能: 科学考察船携带大量探测设备。探测设备对船舶自身噪声要求比较高,为了不影响船舶探测设备的测量精度,故科学考察船要尽可能地从船型设计,结构设计及选用低振动、低噪声的设备等方面,降低船舶的自身噪声。

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